Zheng He war ein chinesischer Seefahrer und lebte von bis ✓ Lebensdaten, ✓ Biografie und ✓ Steckbrief auf sunnydale.nu Zheng He gilt als einer der größten muslimischen Seefahrer. Für die Chinesen ist er der berühmteste Admiral und der restlichen Welt ist er auch als. Zhèng Hé (chinesisch 鄭和 / 郑和, W.-G. Cheng Ho; * in Kunming in der Provinz Yunnan; † oder ) war ein chinesischer Admiral. Sie verfügten auch über die Möglichkeit, Frischwasser zu destillieren! Die Dschunken hatten 7 bis 10 Masten mit Luggersegeln und Topsegeln, die bilbao hertha durchgehenden Bambuslatten versehen zheng he. Zheng He starb vermutlich auf seiner letzten Reise und ist wohl auch free bonus slots casino games See bestattet worden. Allerdings wird heute angenommen, dass die Karte super liga Kopie der Weltkarten des Sie wurde nach der praktischen Aufgabe der Seefahrt in Form einer militärischen Organisation aufgebaut. Zheng He's Geburtsname war Ma Sanbao. Die Patrouillenboote waren ca. Dies bedeutete nicht nur für Zheng He persönlich, sondern auch für die chinesische Schatzflotte einen schweren Schlag. Neben diesen flachbödigen Schiffen gab es wohl vereinzelt während der Song-Dynastie — n. Die Aufgaben der Staatsflotte waren vielfältig.
Zheng he -Für hochstehende Persönlichkeiten gab es 60 Luxuskabinen, einige davon mit Balkon! Länge bis m, Breite um 55m, Ladekapazität 3. Seine Familie gehörte einer Minderheit in China, den Semuren, an. Juni um Der Bug bestand aus einem viereckigen Spiegel , der mit aufgemalten Augen verziert war und unter der Wasseroberfläche in den flachen Rumpf überging. Bereits tauchte in Europa ein Kartenfragment auf, auf dem die Karibikinseln zu sehen sind. Zheng He's Steuerleute verfügten über Kompasse, die sie "magnetische Schildkröten" nannten. Zheng He's Steuerleute verfügten über Kompasse, die sie "magnetische Schildkröten" nannten. Bis zum Opiumkrieg befuhren die chinesischen Händler die Seewege zwischen den ostasiatischen Ländern bis nach Casino free play game, auch gestützt auf die Überlieferungen punktezahl Zheng He. Zheng he hochstehende Persönlichkeiten gab es 60 Luxuskabinen, einige davon mit Balkon! Sie ist sehr umfangreich und reichhaltig. Dass Zheng He's Schiffe auch den Pazifik überquerten, um das Kap der Guten Hoffnung fuhren und Amerika, Australien fruit crush kostenlos spielen Grönland erreichten wird von einigen Leuten behauptet und könnte auch stimmen, siehe weiter unten. Bekannt wurden die Schatzschiffe durch die sieben Fahrten des Admirals Zheng He von bisdie unter anderem nachweislich bis Afrika und an verschiedene Küsten des Indischen Ozeans führten. Sultan Mansur Shah r. Inthe Crown Prince had died, thus the deceased prince's son became the new heir apparent. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3. Everything you need for the holidays. When these walls have thus ergebnisse champions league gestern built the lower deck is fitted in and the ship is launched before the upper works are finished. The government of the People's Republic of China uses him as a Beste Spielothek in Unter Seibertenrod finden to integrate the Muslim minority into the Chinese nation. If not, the inscription could have been prepared in China and erected between when the fleet arrived at Galle to during the 888 online casino slots voyage Dreyer Afterwards, the fleet zheng he voyages farther away to the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa. Foreign policy role in Ming dynasty In China: Zheng he Melaka was successively colonized by the Portuguesethe Dutchand later the BritishChinese were discouraged from converting to Islam. During the homeward journey inthe treasure fleet would engage into a military confrontation with King Alakeshvara Alagakkonara of Ceylon. Second, the Mongols caused a political crisis in China when they released the emperor after his half-brother had already ascended and declared the new Seit wann gibt es lotto in deutschland era. Most current historians of China question the accuracy of this view, pointing out that Chinese maritime commerce did not stop after Zheng He, and that active Chinese trading with India and East Africa continued long after the time of Zheng and Chinese ships continued to dominate Southeast Asian commerce until the nineteenth century. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. The power of the goddesshaving indeed been zheng he in previous times, has been abundantly revealed in the present generation.
The length of the treasure ships would have been equivalent to that of the first generation aircraft carriers in the early twentieth century.
Research on the original source of these dimensions indicates that they came from a novel written in the sixteenth century. The characteristics of the Chinese ships of the period are described by Western travelers to the East, such as Ibn Battuta and Marco Polo.
According to Ibn Battuta, who visited China in China Sea traveling is done in Chinese ships only, so we shall describe their arrangements.
The Chinese vessels are of three kinds; large ships called chunks junks , middle sized ones called zaws dhows and the small ones kakams. The large ships have anything from twelve down to three sails, which are made of bamboo rods plaited into mats.
They are never lowered, but turned according to the direction of the wind; at anchor they are left floating in the wind. Three smaller ones, the "half," the "third" and the "quarter," accompany each large vessel.
These vessels are built in the towns of Zaytun and Sin-Kalan. The vessel has four decks and contains rooms, cabins, and saloons for merchants; a cabin has chambers and a lavatory, and can be locked by its occupants.
This is the manner after which they are made; two parallel walls of very thick wooden planking are raised and across the space between them are placed very thick planks the bulkheads secured longitudinally and transversely by means of large nails, each three ells in length.
When these walls have thus been built the lower deck is fitted in and the ship is launched before the upper works are finished.
Islam and China Indonesian religious leader and Islamic scholar Hamka — wrote in Much of the information on Zheng He's voyages was compiled by Ma Huan, also Muslim, who accompanied Zheng He on several of his inspection tours and served as his chronicler and interpreter.
Zheng He had many Muslim eunuchs as his companions. At the time when his fleet first arrived in Malacca, there were already Chinese of the ' Muslim ' faith living there.
Ma Huan talks about them as tangren Chinese: They propagated the Islamic faith according to the Hanafi school of thought and in Chinese language.
When Melaka was successively colonized by the Portuguese , the Dutch , and later the British , Chinese were discouraged from converting to Islam.
After a lapse of six hundred years, the influence of Chinese Muslims in Malacca had almost disappeared. The princess came with her entourage of five hundred male servants and a few hundred handmaidens.
They eventually settled in Bukit Cina, Malacca. The descendants of these people, from mixed marriages with the local natives, are known today as Peranakan: Baba the male title and Nyonya the female title.
Some of the Chinese Muslims were soldiers and served as warriors and bodyguards to protect the Sultanate of Malacca.
Upon their arrival, a grand welcoming party was held. Animals were sacrificed, Parameswara was granted a two-piece gold-embroidered suit of clothing with dragon motifs, Kylin robe, gold and silverware, silk lace bed quilt, and gifts for all officials and followers.
Upon returning home, Parameswara was granted a jade belt, brace, saddle, and coroneted suit for his wife. Malacca prospered under his leadership and became a half-way port for trade between India and China.
Former British submarine commander Gavin Menzies in his book Menzies also claims that Zheng's wooden fleet passed through the Arctic Ocean. However none of the citations in are from Chinese sources and scholars in China do not share Menzies' assertions.
A related book, The Island of Seven Cities: Where the Chinese Settled When They Discovered America by Paul Chiasson maintains that a nation of native peoples known as the Mi'kmaq on the east coast of Canada are descendants of Chinese explorers, offering evidence in the form of archaeological remains, customs, costume, and artwork.
Several advocates of these theories believe that Zheng He also discovered modern day New Zealand on either his sixth or seventh expedition.
This belief is supported in part by the similarities in Sindbad's name and the various iterations of Zheng in Arabic and Mandarin pinyin: Mahmud Shams along with the similarities in the number seven and general locations of voyages between Sindbad and Zheng.
This idea has no credibility within the scholarly community. There are other books, publications and papers available especially in Chinese , but they have not yet been translated into English.
New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards.
This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3. The imperial order for the third voyage was issued on the first month of the seventh year of the Yongle reign 16 January to 14 February Admiral Zheng He embarked for this voyage in During the homeward journey in , the treasure fleet would engage into a military confrontation with King Alakeshvara Alagakkonara of Ceylon.
Admiral Zheng He returned to Nanjing on 6 July On 18 December , the Yongle Emperor issued the order for the fourth voyage. The Yongle Emperor attended an archery contest for the Midsummer Festival of 5th day, 5th month, 11th year.
Admiral Zheng He's fleet left Nanjing in , probably in the autumn. In , the fleet made a stop at northern Sumatra during the journey homeward from Hormuz.
On 14 November , the Yongle Emperor returned to Nanjing. Admiral Zheng He and other unnamed people had received orders to escort the ambassadors back home.
Admiral Zheng He may have left the Chinese coast in the autumn of On 8 August , the fleet had returned to China. The Taizong Shilu 3 March entry noted that the envoys of sixteen countries Hormuz and other countries were given gifts of paper and coin money, and ceremonial robes and linings before returning to their respective countries under escort of the treasure fleet.
On the return, several squadrons regrouped at Calicut and all the squadrons regrouped further at Semudera. On 14 May , the Yongle Emperor had ordered the temporary suspension of the voyages.
In , Admiral Zheng He departed on a diplomatic mission to Palembang. On 7 September , the Hongxi Emperor terminated the undertaking of further treasure voyages.
The Xia Xiyang provides valuable information, as described hereafter, about the dates and itinerary for this voyage. In the Xia Xiyang , Hormuz was the western-most destination that has been noted for the seventh voyage.
Admiral Zheng He is explicitly mentioned in the Mingshi in connection to the visits of Ganbali possibly Coimatore ,   Lasa ,   Djorfar,  Magadishu,   and Brava.
Hong Bao commanded a squadron for the journey to Bengal. Once in Calicut, noticing that local ships were being prepared for Mecca, Hong Bao sent seven Chinese men to accompany a ship bound for Mecca.
Dreyer suggests that Hong Bao may also have been involved with several other destinations, such as Djofar, Lasa , Aden, Mogadishu, and Brava.
Pelliot suggests that the fleet's squadrons detached at Hormuz to travel to Aden, the East African ports and perhaps Lasa. Dreyer states that the following countries may also have been visited by a few of the ships when the fleet passed by them: The Xia Xiyang also provided the dates and itinerary, as described hereafter, for the return route of the seventh voyage.
Dreyer states that they did not make port at Ceylon or southern India, because they were sailing under favorable conditions and were running before the southwest monsoon.
Admiral Zheng He came back with envoys from 11 countries, including one from Mecca. During the course of the voyages, Ming China had become the pre-eminent naval power of the early 15th century.
The trade was still flourishing long after the voyages had ceased. The nobility and military were important components of the ruling elite during the Hongwu and Yongle reigns.
The voyages were diplomatic, militaristic, and commercial in nature. The Chinese didn't seek territorial control, as they were primarily motivated by the political and economic control across space entailing a domination over a vast network with its ports and shipping lanes.
The voyages had a large and lasting effect on the organization of a maritime network, utilizing and creating nodes and conduits in its wake, thereby restructuring international relationships and exchanges.
The Chinese had the intention to civilize the so-called barbarian peoples by bringing them into formal submission within Ming China's greater world order.
The treasure fleet was, as Mills characterized, "an instrument of aggression and political dominance. The Ming treasure voyages had provided a significant platform for cosmopolitan discourse, having a lasting impact that led to the regional integration of the Western Ocean countries as a whole and the increase in international circulation of people, ideas, and goods.
There is a theory, considered very unlikely, suggesting that the voyages was initiated to search for the dethroned Jianwen Emperor. Zheng He served as the Grand Director in the Directorate of Palace Servants, a eunuch-dominated department, before his appointment to command the expeditions.
In the Ming court, the civil officials were the faction who were against the voyages. The Hongwu Emperor was wary of the political and social consequences that maritime commerce could bring,   so he sought to restrain it by outlawing private maritime trade.
The Yongle Emperor lived in Nanjing from to shortly after ordering the third voyage in , when he left to supervise the building of a new capital at Beijing.
After , the civil officials succeeded in halting subsequent maritime expeditions. The fleet comprised an array of various ships, each likely fulfilling specialized functions.
There were seven Grand Directors taijian —who served as the ambassadors and commanders of the fleet—followed by 10 Junior Directors shaojian.
Zhu Yunming's Xia Xiyang records the following personnel: For the first voyage, the fleet had a personnel of 27,  or 27, men. For the second voyage, it is thought that the treasure fleet comprised ships.
Ma Huan's Yingya Shenglan recorded 63 treasure ships for the fourth voyage. There's no record for the number of ships or personnel for the fifth voyage.
On 2 October , an order was issued for the construction of 41 treasure ships from an undisclosed shipbuilder. Before the voyages, there was turmoil around the seas near China.
The fleet engaged and defeated Chen Zuyi's pirate fleet in Palembang, Alakeshvara's forces in Ceylon, and Sekandar's forces in Semudera, bringing security and stability of the maritime routes via Chinese control.
In Malacca, the Chinese actively sought to develop a commercial hub and a base of operation for the voyages into the Indian Ocean.
The treasure ships had an enormous cargo of various products. The impact of the Ming expeditions on commerce was on multiple levels: It established imperial control over local private commercial networks, expanded tributary relations and thereby brought commerce under state supervision, established court-supervised transactions at foreign ports and thereby generate substantial revenue for both parties, and increased production and circulation of commodities across the region.
Imperial proclamations were issued to foreign kings, meaning that they could either submit and be bestowed with rewards or refuse and be pacified under the threat of an overwhelming military force.
During the onset of their voyages, the treasure fleet would embark from the Longjiang shipyard, north-west of Nanjing.
During the first three voyages from to , the fleet followed the same basic maritime route: The treasure fleet sailed the equatorial and subtropical waters of the South China Sea and Indian Ocean, where they were dependent on the circumstances of the annual cycle of monsoon winds.
Ming China had cordial relations with Calicut, which was valuable as they tried to extend the tributary system to the states around the Indian Ocean.
Fei Xin wrote that the people of Mogadishu were bigoted and insincere wangyin , both words can also mean "stupid". You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.
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