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Eishockey wikipedia

eishockey wikipedia

Die Offiziellen sorgen beim Eishockey für den ordnungsgemäßen und. Wie bei den meisten anderen Sportarten hat sich auch für das Eishockey im. Eishockey ist in Deutschland eine der beliebtesten Mannschaftssportarten, die .

wikipedia eishockey -

Ziel des Spiels ist es, das Spielgerät, den Puck , eine kleine Hartgummischeibe, in das gegnerische Tor zu befördern. Gleichzeitig waren die Österreicher der erste Aufsteiger seit Frankreich im Jahr , der den Klassenerhalt in der höchsten Stufe der Weltmeisterschaften schaffte. Insgesamt gibt es neun Anspiel- oder Bullypunkte: Die höchste Fangquote wies allerdings der für Kasachstan spielende und gebürtige Schwede Henrik Karlsson auf, den geringsten Gegentorschnitt verzeichnete der Italiener Marco De Filippo. Rekordsieger ist der Gastgeber HC Davos. Nach über einem Jahr Verhandlungen wurde eine Gehaltsobergrenze Salary Cap beschlossen, die die Liga ausgeglichener und spannender machen soll. Das Spielfeld ist in der Regel mit Holz- oder Kunststoffwänden umgeben. This includes euro 2020 spielorte starts, stops, turns, and changes 6er position fußball skating direction. Play often proceeds for minutes without interruption. There are two major women's hockey leagues, the National Women's Hockey League with teams in the Northeastern United States which is a professional league and the Canadian Women's Hockey League with teams in Canada and the United States, which is semi-professional and is developing toward becoming a fully professional league. Beste Spielothek in Angelse findenthe Western Sport free porn Hockey League was the first to employ professionals. The —67 season, in retrospect, marked a turning point of German ice hockey, also not an instantaneous one, the shift from the dominance of small-town Bavarian teams to the clubs from the large cities. Akademischer EHC Zürich Players may not hold the puck in their hand and are prohibited from using their hands to pass the puck to their teammates, unless they are in the defensive zone. This cooperation contract was signed in Decemberand was valid until In the case of a goal scored during the first two minutes of a double-minor, the penalty clock is set down to two minutes eishockey wikipedia a Beste Spielothek in Niederleierndorf finden, effectively expiring the first minor penalty. England, Wales, Scotland casino cup chemnitz Northern Ireland. On the ice the league modus had been slightly altered again. See Terms of Use for details. Clubs in the DEL were required to conform to ruleswhich were designed to ensure long-term viability.

The league expanded to eight clubs for the second season and twelve in the third. From onwards the league operated with eight clubs again.

The —58 season was the last one for the league as the highest level of play in the country. It was decided to form the Eishockey-Bundesliga.

The best eight clubs from the Oberliga , which then operated with twelve clubs again, qualified for the new top division.

The Oberliga remained in existence however, now as the second tier of German ice hockey. Starting out with eight clubs in the league again, it expanded to twelve in the coming seasons.

The year saw the league split into a northern and a southern group. The two separate leagues were called Oberliga South and Oberliga North.

The winners of the two divisions would determine the Oberliga champion in a home-and-away series. The league reunited in a single division in , now with a strength of 16 teams and direct promotion to the Bundesliga.

The season was the last one as a tier-two league. With the foundation of the 2nd Bundesliga , the Oberliga fell to tier three. While the league champion moved up to the Bundesliga and the teams placed two to nine gained entry to the new second division, only the bottom seven clubs remained in the league.

The Oberliga was now again divided into a northern and a southern group. The top two teams out of the two divisions originally played out a promotion round to the 2nd Bundesliga which also served to determine the Oberliga champion.

While the modus and number of teams in the league continued to fluctuat, the overall situation remained the same.

Each period starts after the face-off. A face-off is when two teams are in position around the face-off circle. Then, the referee drops the puck between the players who play center.

There are 6 different positions: The play is over after a whistle of any referee. After a whistle-blow, the time stops running. Each team can have a maximum of 20 players, including two goaltenders who have a zone to defend.

Each team has one captain and two or three assistant captains. The ice is separated into three zones. Each zone is marked by lines. The center zone is between two blue lines and team zones are between one blue line and the end of the ice.

The lineman can whistle for two reasons: An icing is when a player throws the puck into the zone before he crosses the red line center line and an offside is when a player enters the zone before the one who has the puck enters with it.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from " https: The league expansion of is generally explained by the fact that the German ice hockey federation, the DEB , wanted the two clubs that had finished third and failed in the promotion round in the league as they were big names, the ice hockey departments of FC Bayern and Eintracht Frankfurt.

Neither impressed during a season that saw EV Füssen defend its title, the last club to do so until At the end of the season, FC Bayern was relegated and soon disbanded its ice hockey department.

The modus however had been changed again, all teams played a home-and-away round in a single division, 22 games each. At the end of this, the best eight teams played another home-and-away round against each other.

The championship was won for the first time by the EV Landshut, while Cologne and Frankfurt were relegated. The —71 saw the league reduced to ten teams but the number of season games remaining at 36 per club.

Because of this, the league did not have a new club in it and ended with the familiar result of EV Füssen taking out another championship. In this season, the league also introduced the Friday-Sunday rhythm of games, with a team playing one home and one away game per weekend, a system that would remain in place for the duration of the league and beyond.

Consequently, no club had to fear relegation while the Düsseldorfer EG, the best supported club in Germany with a spectator average of almost 10, per home game, took out the championship while EV Füssen came second.

It was to be the last-ever title for the club from Füssen and marked the end of the Bavarian dominance, with championships going to the state now becoming as rare as they had been commonplace.

The league modus experienced another change when, instead of ten clubs the league was expanded to eleven, courtesy to the promotion of both Berliner SC and EV Rosenheim.

The later was found to be uncompetitive in the league however, only accumulating twelve points in 40 season games and being relegated again.

It was also the last season of the Oberliga as the second division, the 2nd Bundesliga being introduced in After a year wait, the Berliner SC won another championship in —74 in a league which had returned to ten clubs and 36 season games.

The —75 seasons saw a continuation of the south-north shift of German ice hockey, with the financially strong northern clubs recruiting a large number of players from the southern ones.

Consequently, spectator numbers for the Bavarian clubs like Riessersee, Bad Tölz and Füssen went down, making it even more difficult to retain their young players.

In the north, another championship was won by the well-supported DEG, with Berlin coming second. At the bottom end, Kaufbeuren was replaced by Rosenheim for the next season.

The league modus unchanged in —76, the Berliner SC won its second post-war title in convincing fashion while, at the bottom, the last three clubs finished on equal points and the goals for-against had to decide who would finish on the tenth and last place and be relegated.

From onwards, the first golden era of the Kölner EC began with the club taking out titles in —77 and — The team from Cologne was generally the first to be seen as bought together rather than having grown.

The success of the club was brought about by the clubs chairman, Jochem Erlemann , an investment banker. Unknown to club and players, Erlemann invested other people's money into the club, without their approval and eventually would serve eight years in jail for it.

On the ice the league modus had been slightly altered again. After the 36 games of the regular round a championship- and relegation round was added.

The top six played for the championship while the bottom four played against relegation, in another home-and-away series within each group.

In the end, new club AEV was relegated from the league again, under unfortunate circumstances on the last day of the season, while a club joined the league that had never played at top level before, the EC Deilinghofen.

The SC Riessersee, often branded as a rough team, won its first championship since in the —78 season, one point ahead of Berliner SC after 46 games in an for once unchanged modus.

At the bottom of the league, Deilinghofen, who had only been promoted after 2nd Bundesliga champions ESV Kaufbeuren declined for financial reasons, was hopelessly outclassed and thirteen points behind the saving ninth place.

The —79 season saw the league expanded to twelve teams. Because of the insolvency of the Krefelder EV who dropped out of the league, the ESV Kaufbeuren was also admitted to the league while the financial collapse of the EV Rosenheim meant that the ice hockey department joined the SB Rosenheim instead, a lucky move that would soon pay off.

Apart from the financial troubles, Augsburger EV would also declare insolvency at the end of the season and drop down to the Oberliga , Mannheim and Rosenheim were also accused of fielding players without correct transfer papers.

Consequently, both clubs had points deducted but later reinstalled again. Mannheim, under coach Heinz Weisenbach , also started a trend that would soon become commonplace in the Bundesliga, to import Canadian players of German origins, the Deutschkanadier , who would be eligible to play for the West German ice hockey team and not take up any of the limited spots for foreigners per team.

On the ice, the expansion meant that the main round was reduced from four to two games per team, 22 each. The search for the perfect modus continued in —80, with an extra round introduced after the regular season.

The twelve clubs were split into three groups of four, with the best eight overall than entering the championship round while the worst four played against relegation.

The complicated modus was blamed for Riessersee not defending its title, which went, for the first time, to the Mannheimer ERC and its Canadian-German star players.

While Mannheim was, unjustly criticised for playing them other clubs already fielded foreigners with fake passports, which would blow out the following season.

At the bottom of the league, new club Duisburger SC had no trouble saving itself in seventh place while ERC Freiburg came a distant last. The highlight of the —81 season should have been the introduction of play-offs to the league, for which the best eight teams qualified, and SC Riessesee's last-ever championship.

However, the season was overshadowed by one of the biggest scandals in German ice hockey. The German consulate in Edmonton, Alberta , Canada, had sent a message to the DEB highlighting that a number of Canadian ice hockey players were living and playing in Germany with fake German passports.

The DEB banned the guilty players and, eventually, deducted large amount of points from the two teams. At that stage the Kölner EC was already playing in the play-off quarter finals, which had to be repeated since the KEC was not qualified for them anymore after losing the points.

Apart from all this, the league also found itself in a row with the television broadcasters who refused to show games of teams with advertising on their shirts, with the clubs not backing down as they could not afford to lose the sponsorship money.

The —82 season saw a recovery of the league after the scandal of the previous year and the introduction of the sudden-death format in the play-offs.

SB Rosenheim turned out to be the surprise team of the season, finishing fifth after the regular season. The team managed to reach the final where they defeated the Mannheimer ERC and took home their first ever-championship.

Of the new teams, ERC Freiburg, like two years before, could not keep up and was relegated while local rivals Schwenninger ERC came close to qualifying for the play-offs.

The winners of the two divisions would determine the Oberliga champion in a home-and-away series. The league reunited in a single division in , now with a strength of 16 teams and direct promotion to the Bundesliga.

The season was the last one as a tier-two league. With the foundation of the 2nd Bundesliga , the Oberliga fell to tier three. While the league champion moved up to the Bundesliga and the teams placed two to nine gained entry to the new second division, only the bottom seven clubs remained in the league.

The Oberliga was now again divided into a northern and a southern group. The top two teams out of the two divisions originally played out a promotion round to the 2nd Bundesliga which also served to determine the Oberliga champion.

While the modus and number of teams in the league continued to fluctuat, the overall situation remained the same. The year saw major changes in the German league system.

The Bundesliga and 2nd Bundesliga merged to form the new DEL , an independently run league consisting of 18 clubs in its foundation years.

Those second division clubs that did not elect to join the DEL were integrated into the new 1st Liga , which had replaced the Oberliga and operated in a northern and a southern group.

The best teams of each of the two divisions played out a DEB championship, similar to the old Oberliga championship. The season was very much a transition season.

The league below was now the 1st Liga , which was made up of those clubs from the 1st Liga not adCentred to the new Bundesliga and 2nd Liga clubs.

However, this situation existed for only one season. From , the league returned to its traditional name Oberliga , with two regional groups, north and south.

In turn, the league above it took the name 2nd Bundesliga. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, and some other European countries the sport is known simply as hockey ; the name "ice hockey" is used in places where "hockey" more often refers to the more popular field hockey , such as countries in South America , Asia , Africa , Australasia , and some European countries including the United Kingdom , Ireland and the Netherlands.

Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere.

These games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as " shinny " and "ice polo".

The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal , where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, Some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day.

Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the s, and professional ice hockey originated around The Stanley Cup , emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and later became the championship trophy of the NHL.

In international competitions, the national teams of six countries the " Big Six " predominate: Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only six medals were not awarded to one of those countries or two of their precursors, the Soviet Union for Russia, and Czechoslovakia for the Czech Republic.

In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships , of medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since All 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals have been awarded to one of these six countries, and every gold medal in both competitions has been won by either the Canadian national team or the United States national team.

In England, field hockey has been historically referred to as simply "hockey" and it is in historical references to field hockey that the name "hockey" first appears.

A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage. According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scots Gaelic puc or the Irish poc to poke, punch or deliver a blow.

Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling , the closely related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey including " bandy ball ", played in England.

It was played with a wooden curved bat called a colf or kolf , a wooden or leather ball and two poles or nearby landmarks , with the objective to hit the chosen point using the least number of strokes.

A similar game knattleikr had been played for a thousand years or more by the Scandinavian peoples, as documented in the Icelandic sagas.

Polo has been referred to as "hockey on horseback". I must now describe to you the game of Hockey; we have each a stick turning up at the end.

We get a bung. There are two sides one of them knocks one way and the other side the other way. If any one of the sides makes the bung reach that end of the churchyard it is victorious.

British soldiers and immigrants to Canada and the United States brought their stick-and-ball games with them and played them on the ice and snow of winter.

In , John Franklin wrote "The game of hockey played on the ice was the morning sport" on Great Bear Lake during one of his Arctic expeditions.

A mids watercolour portrays New Brunswick lieutenant-governor Archibald Campbell and his family with British soldiers on skates playing a stick-on-ice sport.

In another British Army officer in Kingston, Ontario wrote, "Began to skate this year, improved quickly and had great fun at hockey on the ice.

In the same era, the Mi'kmaq , a First Nations people of the Canadian Maritimes , also had a stick-and-ball game. Canadian oral histories describe a traditional stick-and-ball game played by the Mi'kmaq, and Silas Tertius Rand in his Legends of the Micmacs describes a Mi'kmaq ball game known as tooadijik.

Rand also describes a game played probably after European contact with hurleys , known as wolchamaadijik. Early 19th-century paintings depict shinney or "shinny" , an early form of hockey with no standard rules which was played in Nova Scotia.

The number of players was often large. To this day, shinney derived from "shinty" is a popular Canadian [24] term for an informal type of hockey , either ice or street hockey.

Thomas Chandler Haliburton , in The Attache: Second Series published in imagined a dialogue, between two of the novel's characters, which mentions playing "hurly on the long pond on the ice".

This has been interpreted by some historians from Windsor, Nova Scotia as reminiscence of the days when the author was a student at King's College School in that town in and earlier.

While the game's origins lie elsewhere, Montreal is at the centre of the development of the sport of contemporary ice hockey, and is recognized as the birthplace of organized ice hockey.

Instead of a ball or bung, the game featured a "flat circular piece of wood" [29] to keep it in the rink and to protect spectators.

The goal posts were 8 feet 2. In , games played in Montreal were "conducted under the 'Hockey Association' rules"; [30] the Hockey Association was England's field hockey organization.

In , The Gazette Montreal published a list of seven rules, six of which were largely based on six of the Hockey Association's twelve rules, with only minor differences even the word "ball" was kept ; the one added rule explained how disputes should be settled.

The number of teams grew, enough to hold the first "world championship" of ice hockey at Montreal's annual Winter Carnival in The McGill team won the tournament and was awarded the "Carnival Cup".

The positions were now named: Moritz, Switzerland; however, this is undocumented. The match was won by the Oxford Dark Blues, 6—0; [36] [37] the first photographs and team lists date from Since , considered the th anniversary of the rivalry, teams of the two colleges play for the Carr-Harris Cup.

In , the Governor General of Canada , Lord Stanley of Preston whose sons and daughter were hockey enthusiasts , first attended the Montreal Winter Carnival tournament and was impressed with the game.

In , realizing that there was no recognition for the best team in Canada although a number of leagues had championship trophies , he purchased a silver bowl for use as a trophy.

By , there were almost a hundred teams in Montreal alone; in addition, there were leagues throughout Canada. Winnipeg hockey players used cricket pads to better protect the goaltender 's legs; they also introduced the "scoop" shot, or what is now known as the wrist shot.

William Fairbrother , from Ontario , Canada is credited with inventing the ice hockey net in the s. Left and right defence began to replace the point and cover-point positions in the OHA in In the United States, "ice polo", played with a ball rather than a puck, was popular during this period; however, by Yale University and Johns Hopkins University held their first ice hockey matches.

Soon afterwards, Chace put together a team of men from Yale, Brown , and Harvard , and toured across Canada as captain of this team.

Yale, led by captain Chace, beat Hopkins, 2—1. The Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace was founded in to govern international competition, and the first European championship was won by Great Britain in The sport grew further in Europe in the s, after ice hockey became an Olympic sport.

Many bandy players switched to hockey so as to be able to compete in the Olympics. As the popularity of ice hockey as a spectator sport grew, earlier rinks were replaced by larger rinks.

Most of the early indoor ice rinks have been demolished; Montreal's Victoria Rink, built in , was demolished in The Stannus Street Rink in Windsor, Nova Scotia built in may be the oldest still in existence; however, it is no longer used for hockey.

The Aberdeen Pavilion built in in Ottawa was used for hockey in and is the oldest existing facility that has hosted Stanley Cup games.

The oldest indoor ice hockey arena still in use today for hockey is Boston 's Matthews Arena , which was built in It has been modified extensively several times in its history and is used today by Northeastern University for hockey and other sports.

It was the original home rink of the Boston Bruins professional team, [51] itself the oldest United States-based team in the NHL, starting play in the league in today's Matthews Arena on December 1, Professional hockey has existed since the early 20th century.

By , the Western Pennsylvania Hockey League was the first to employ professionals. The IPHL, cut off from its largest source of players, disbanded in By then, several professional hockey leagues were operating in Canada with leagues in Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec.

The NHA would further refine the rules: After re-organizing as the National Hockey League in , the league expanded into the United States, starting with the Boston Bruins in Professional hockey leagues developed later in Europe, but amateur leagues leading to national championships were in place.

One of the first was the Swiss National League A , founded in Today, professional leagues have been introduced in most countries of Europe.

While the general characteristics of the game stay the same wherever it is played, the exact rules depend on the particular code of play being used.

Ice hockey is played on a hockey rink. During normal play, there are six players per side on the ice at any time, one of them being the goaltender, each of whom is on ice skates.

The objective of the game is to score goals by shooting a hard vulcanized rubber disc, the puck , into the opponent's goal net, which is placed at the opposite end of the rink.

The players use their sticks to pass or shoot the puck. Within certain restrictions, players may redirect the puck with any part of their body.

Players may not hold the puck in their hand and are prohibited from using their hands to pass the puck to their teammates, unless they are in the defensive zone.

Players are also prohibited from kicking the puck into the opponent's goal, though unintentional redirections off the skate are permitted.

Players may not intentionally bat the puck into the net with their hands. Hockey is an " off-side " game, meaning that forward passes are allowed, unlike in rugby.

Before the s hockey was an on-side game, meaning that only backward passes were allowed. Those rules favoured individual stick-handling as a key means of driving the puck forward.

With the arrival of offside rules, the forward pass transformed hockey into a truly team sport, where individual performance diminished in importance relative to team play, which could now be coordinated over the entire surface of the ice as opposed to merely rearward players.

The six players on each team are typically divided into three forwards, two defencemen, and a goaltender.

The term skaters is typically used to describe all players who are not goaltenders. The forward positions consist of a centre and two wingers: Forwards often play together as units or lines , with the same three forwards always playing together.

The defencemen usually stay together as a pair generally divided between left and right. Left and right side wingers or defencemen are generally positioned as such, based on the side on which they carry their stick.

A substitution of an entire unit at once is called a line change. Teams typically employ alternate sets of forward lines and defensive pairings when shorthanded or on a power play.

The goaltender stands in a, usually blue, semi-circle called the crease in the defensive zone keeping pucks from going in.

Substitutions are permitted at any time during the game, although during a stoppage of play the home team is permitted the final change. When players are substituted during play, it is called changing on the fly.

A new NHL rule added in the —06 season prevents a team from changing their line after they ice the puck. The boards surrounding the ice help keep the puck in play and they can also be used as tools to play the puck.

Players are permitted to " bodycheck " opponents into the boards as a means of stopping progress. The referees, linesmen and the outsides of the goal are "in play" and do not cause a stoppage of the game when the puck or players are influenced by either bouncing or colliding into them.

Play can be stopped if the goal is knocked out of position. Play often proceeds for minutes without interruption.

When play is stopped, it is restarted with a " faceoff ". Two players "face" each other and an official drops the puck to the ice, where the two players attempt to gain control of the puck.

Markings circles on the ice indicate the locations for the faceoff and guide the positioning of players. The three major rules of play in ice hockey that limit the movement of the puck: A player is "offside" if he enters his opponent's zone before the puck itself.

Under many situations, a player may not "ice the puck", shoot the puck all the way across both the centre line and the opponent's goal line.

The puck goes "out of play" whenever it goes past the perimeter of the ice rink onto the player benches, over the "glass," or onto the protective netting above the glass and a stoppage of play is called by the officials using whistles.

It also does not matter if the puck comes back onto the ice surface from those areas as the puck is considered dead once it leaves the perimeter of the rink.

Under IIHF rules, each team may carry a maximum of 20 players and two goaltenders on their roster. NHL rules restrict the total number of players per game to 18, plus two goaltenders.

In the NHL, the players are usually divided into four lines of three forwards, and into three pairs of defencemen.

On occasion, teams may elect to substitute an extra defenceman for a forward. The seventh defenceman may play as a substitute defenceman, spend the game on the bench, or if a team chooses to play four lines then this seventh defenceman may see ice-time on the fourth line as a forward.

A professional game consists of three "periods" of twenty minutes, the clock running only when the puck is in play. The teams change ends after each period of play, including overtime.

Recreational leagues and children's leagues often play shorter games, generally with three shorter periods of play. Various procedures are used if a tie occurs.

In tournament play, as well as in the NHL playoffs, North Americans favour sudden death overtime , in which the teams continue to play twenty-minute periods until a goal is scored.

Up until the — season regular season NHL games were settled with a single five-minute sudden death period with five players plus a goalie per side, with both teams awarded one point in the standings in the event of a tie.

With a goal, the winning team would be awarded two points and the losing team none just as if they had lost in regulation.

From — until —04, the National Hockey League decided ties by playing a single five-minute sudden death overtime period with each team having four skaters per side plus the goalie to "open up" the game.

In the event of a tie, each team would still receive one point in the standings but in the event of a victory the winning team would be awarded two points in the standings and the losing team one point.

The idea was to discourage teams from playing for a tie, since previously some teams might have preferred a tie and 1 point to risking a loss and zero points.

The only exception to this rule is if a team opts to pull their goalie in exchange for an extra skater during overtime and is subsequently scored upon an "empty net" goal , in which case the losing team receives no points for the overtime loss.

Since the —16 season, the single five-minute sudden death overtime session involves three skaters on each side.

Since three skaters must always be on the ice in an NHL game, the consequences of penalties are slightly different from those during regulation play.

If a team is on a powerplay when overtime begins, that team will play with more than three skaters usually four, very rarely five until the expiration of the penalty.

Any penalty during overtime that would result in a team losing a skater during regulation instead causes the non-penalized team to add a skater.

Once the penalized team's penalty ends, the number of skaters on each side is adjusted accordingly, with the penalized team adding a skater in regulation and the non-penalized team subtracting a skater in overtime.

This goes until the next stoppage of play. International play and several North American professional leagues, including the NHL in the regular season , now use an overtime period identical to that from 99—00 — 03—04 followed by a penalty shootout.

If the score remains tied after an extra overtime period, the subsequent shootout consists of three players from each team taking penalty shots.

After these six total shots, the team with the most goals is awarded the victory. If the score is still tied, the shootout then proceeds to a sudden death format.

Regardless of the number of goals scored during the shootout by either team, the final score recorded will award the winning team one more goal than the score at the end of regulation time.

In the NHL if a game is decided in overtime or by a shootout the winning team is awarded two points in the standings and the losing team is awarded one point.

Ties no longer occur in the NHL. The overtime mode for the NHL playoffs differ from the regular season. In the playoffs there are no shootouts nor ties.

If a game is tied after regulation an additional 20 minutes of 5 on 5 sudden death overtime will be added.

In case of a tied game after the overtime, multiple minute overtimes will be played until a team scores, which wins the match.

In ice hockey, infractions of the rules lead to play stoppages whereby the play is restarted at a face off.

Some infractions result in the imposition of a penalty to a player or team. In the simplest case, the offending player is sent to the " penalty box " and their team has to play with one less player on the ice for a designated amount of time.

Minor penalties last for two minutes, major penalties last for five minutes, and a double minor penalty is two consecutive penalties of two minutes duration.

A single minor penalty may be extended by a further two minutes for causing visible injury to the victimized player. This is usually when blood is drawn during high sticking.

Players may be also assessed personal extended penalties or game expulsions for misconduct in addition to the penalty or penalties their team must serve.

The team that has been given a penalty is said to be playing "short-handed" while the opposing team is on a " power play ".

A two-minute minor penalty is often charged for lesser infractions such as " tripping ", " elbowing ", " roughing ", " high-sticking ", " delay of the game ", " too many players on the ice ", " boarding ", illegal equipment, " charging " leaping into an opponent or body-checking him after taking more than two strides , "holding", holding the stick grabbing an opponent's stick , "interference", " hooking ", " slashing ", "kneeing", "unsportsmanlike conduct" arguing a penalty call with referee, extremely vulgar or inappropriate verbal comments , "butt-ending" striking an opponent with the knob of the stick—a very rare penalty , "spearing", or " cross-checking ".

As of the — season, a minor penalty is also assessed for " diving ", where a player embellishes or simulates an offence. More egregious fouls may be penalized by a four-minute double-minor penalty, particularly those that injure the victimized player.

These penalties end either when the time runs out or when the other team scores during the power play. In the case of a goal scored during the first two minutes of a double-minor, the penalty clock is set down to two minutes upon a score, effectively expiring the first minor penalty.

Five-minute major penalties are called for especially violent instances of most minor infractions that result in intentional injury to an opponent, or when a "minor" penalty results in visible injury such as bleeding , as well as for fighting.

Major penalties are always served in full; they do not terminate on a goal scored by the other team.

Major penalties assessed for fighting are typically offsetting, meaning neither team is short-handed and the players exit the penalty box upon a stoppage of play following the expiration of their respective penalties.

Because of the insolvency of the Krefelder EV who dropped out of the league, the ESV Kaufbeuren was also admitted to the league while the financial collapse of the EV Rosenheim meant that the ice hockey department joined the SB Rosenheim instead, a lucky move that would soon pay off.

Apart from the financial troubles, Augsburger EV would also declare insolvency at the end of the season and drop down to the Oberliga , Mannheim and Rosenheim were also accused of fielding players without correct transfer papers.

Consequently, both clubs had points deducted but later reinstalled again. Mannheim, under coach Heinz Weisenbach , also started a trend that would soon become commonplace in the Bundesliga, to import Canadian players of German origins, the Deutschkanadier , who would be eligible to play for the West German ice hockey team and not take up any of the limited spots for foreigners per team.

On the ice, the expansion meant that the main round was reduced from four to two games per team, 22 each. The search for the perfect modus continued in —80, with an extra round introduced after the regular season.

The twelve clubs were split into three groups of four, with the best eight overall than entering the championship round while the worst four played against relegation.

The complicated modus was blamed for Riessersee not defending its title, which went, for the first time, to the Mannheimer ERC and its Canadian-German star players.

While Mannheim was, unjustly criticised for playing them other clubs already fielded foreigners with fake passports, which would blow out the following season.

At the bottom of the league, new club Duisburger SC had no trouble saving itself in seventh place while ERC Freiburg came a distant last. The highlight of the —81 season should have been the introduction of play-offs to the league, for which the best eight teams qualified, and SC Riessesee's last-ever championship.

However, the season was overshadowed by one of the biggest scandals in German ice hockey. The German consulate in Edmonton, Alberta , Canada, had sent a message to the DEB highlighting that a number of Canadian ice hockey players were living and playing in Germany with fake German passports.

The DEB banned the guilty players and, eventually, deducted large amount of points from the two teams. At that stage the Kölner EC was already playing in the play-off quarter finals, which had to be repeated since the KEC was not qualified for them anymore after losing the points.

Apart from all this, the league also found itself in a row with the television broadcasters who refused to show games of teams with advertising on their shirts, with the clubs not backing down as they could not afford to lose the sponsorship money.

The —82 season saw a recovery of the league after the scandal of the previous year and the introduction of the sudden-death format in the play-offs.

SB Rosenheim turned out to be the surprise team of the season, finishing fifth after the regular season. The team managed to reach the final where they defeated the Mannheimer ERC and took home their first ever-championship.

Of the new teams, ERC Freiburg, like two years before, could not keep up and was relegated while local rivals Schwenninger ERC came close to qualifying for the play-offs.

The league shrunk in size in —83, now having only ten teams again. A double round of home-and-away games, 36 each, was followed by the play-offs contested by the top eight.

The EV Landshut was the surprise champions, the second title for the club after On both occasions, it was due to its coach, the Czech Karel Gut.

Landshut's championship team was low-cost, with the lowest budged in years for a championship winning side, achieved through the fact that 20 of its players were local boys who had been born in Landshut.

Apart from them, only Erich Kühnhackl and the two Canadian Laycock brothers were not born in Landshut. Only one club was relegated that season, the EV Füssen, the second-last of the leagues founding members that played in it uninterruptedly since day one.

Füssen became insolvent at the end of the season, restarted in the 2nd Bundesliga but never returned to the top flight again. In the —84 season, the league once more made a slight modus change, introducing a round of two groups of four between the regular season and the play-offs and skipping the quarter finals instead.

The final was won by the Kölner EC, defeating champions Landshut in five games. In —85 the league returned to the old system of a regular season of 36 games followed by the play-off quarter finals.

The EHC Essen-West was admitted to the league to replace the ERC Freiburg, but had to little time to prepare and was heavily outclassed, finishing the season in last place, with only eight points.

The club was relegated and made room for the SV Bayreuth. From onwards, the second golden era of the Kölner EC began, winning three titles in a row.

In —86, the final was contested against the arch rival Düsseldorfer EG, who had just overcome a couple of lean seasons in regards to success and money.

In the relegation zone, Bayreuth was another uncompetitive newcomer that found itself promptly relegated and replaced by Eintracht Frankfurt's ice hockey department, which returned to the Bundesliga after a long absence.

After struggling against relegation for four consecutive seasons, the SC Riessersee, last of the original eight from to never have dropped out of the league, finally fell.

The club would not return to the Bundesliga again but at least made a brief top-level comeback in the DEL some years later. The Kölner EC again took out the championship and again needed only three games in the finals to do so, this time against Mannheim.

The club was not competitive in the league but survived nevertheless because ECD Iserlohn folded midway. Iserlohn, formerly the EC Deilinghofen, was already under threat of folding before the season started but was allowed to participate anyway and made a desperate rescue attempt when chairman Heinz Weifenbach negotiated an advertising contract in which his club would advertise Muammar Gaddafi 's Green Book on its shirts.

After only one game, this was outlawed by the DEB and Iserlohn folded after the next. The Iserlohn affair also brought to the surface the tension between the clubs and the DEB , with some demanding an independent league, which would eventually materialise in The —89 season was somewhat a transition, between the dominance of the Kölner EC's three consecutive titles and the Düsseldorfer EG's consecutive four that were to follow.

In between, in that season, SB Rosenheim won its third and last national championship, after defeating the up-and-coming DEG in four matches in the finals.

The most successful era of the Düsseldorfer EG began with the —90 season, with the club winning the regular season and then overcoming champions SB Rosenheim in five games in the finals.

The two clubs that had to enter the relegation round with the best eight from the 2nd Bundesliga, EV Landshut and EHC Freiburg, both survived and consequently were able to play in the league for another season.

The greatest change the league experienced however was a political one, the German reunion. Two clubs from the former East Germany would join the league in the following season.

Both clubs struggled in the new competition and found themselves in eleventh and twelfth place in the expanded league.

A play-down format between the bottom four clubs was than used to determine the relegated teams, with the two East German sides competing against each other.

Eishockey Wikipedia Video

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Eishockey wikipedia -

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